WHO. World malaria report. 20 years of global progress and challenges. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2020. p. 2020.
Ministry of Health Community Development, Gender, Elders and Children; Ministry of Health [Zanzibar], Tanzania National Bureau of Statistics, Office of the Chief Government Statistician (OCGS), ICF International. Tanzania Malaria Indicator Survey 2017. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and Rockville, USA; 2017.
Tanzania Commission for AIDS, National Bureau of Statistics, Office of the Chief Government Statistician (OCGS), and Macro International Inc. Tanzania HIV/AIDS and Malaria Indicator Survey 2007–2008. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 2008.
Tanzania Commission for AIDS, National Bureau of Statistics (NBS), Office of the Chief Government Statistician (OCGS), and ICF International. Tanzania HIV/AIDS and Malaria Indicator Survey 2011–12. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania:, and Rockville, USA; 2013.
Ministry of Health Community Development, Gender, Elders and Children, Ministry of Health [Zanzibar], National Bureau of Statistics, Office of the Chief Government Statistician, and ICF International. Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey and Malaria Indicator Survey (TDHS-MIS) 2015–16. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and Rockville, USA; 2016.
Bhatt S, Weiss DJ, Cameron E, Bisanzio D, Mappin B, Dalrymple U, et al. The effect of malaria control on Plasmodium falciparum in Africa between 2000 and 2015. Nature. 2015;526:207–11.
The United Republic of Tanzania. Tanzania National Strategy for Vector Control, 2019–2024. Ministry of Health, Community Development, Gender, Elderly and Children. Tanzania National Strategy for Vector Control, 2019–2024. 2019.
Kilian A, Obi E, Mansiangi P, Abílio AP, Haji KA, Blaufuss S, et al. Variation of physical durability between LLIN products and net use environments: summary of findings from four African countries. Malar J. 2021;20:26.
Candidate LA, Cornelious LJ. Designing and conducting health surveys: a comprehensive guide. 3rd ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass; 2006.
Hoshaw-Woodard S. Description and comparison of the methods of cluster sampling and lot quality assurance sampling to assess immunization coverage. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2001.
MEASURE Evaluation. Report of a Technical Meeting on the Use of Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) in Polio Eradication Programs. Chapel Hill, NC: Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina; 1998.
Singh J, Jain DC, Sharma RS, Verghese T. Evaluation of immunization coverage by lot quality assurance sampling compared with 30-cluster sampling in a primary health center in India. Bull World Health Organ. 1996;74:269–74.
Vanamail P, Subramanian S, Srividya A, Ravi R, Krishnamoorthy K, Das PK. Operational feasibility of lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) as a tool in routine process monitoring of filariasis control programs. Trop Med Int Health. 2006;11:1256–63.
Ame AM, Jacob S. Relationship between network coverage and teledensity growth – case of giant telecommunication companies of Tanzania. Int J Manag IT Eng. 2013;3(5):459–73.
World Bank. Information and communications for development: maximizing mobile. Washington, DC: World Bank; 2012.
Castells M, Qui JL, Fernandez-Ardevol M, Sey A. Mobile communication and society: a global perspective. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press; 2009.
GMSA Intelligence. The Mobile Economy – Sub-Saharan Africa 2014. 2014.
Minges M. Mobile cellular communications in the Southern African region. Telecom Policy. 1999;23:585–93.
Ballivian A, Azevedo JP, Durbin W. Using mobile phones for high-frequency data collection. In: Toninelli D, Pinter R, de Pedraza P, editors. Mobile research methods opportunities and challenges of mobile research methodologies. London: Ubiquity Press; 2015.
Croke K, Dabalen A, Demombynes G, Giugale M, Hoogeveen J. Collecting high frequency panel data in Africa using mobile phone interviews. In: The World Bank Policy Research Working Papers, Africa Region. 2012.
Gibson DG, Pereira A, Farrenkopf BA, Labrique AB, Pariyo GW, Hyder AA. Mobile phone surveys for collecting population-level estimates in low- and middle-income countries: a literature review. J Med Internet Res. 2017;19: e139.
Hyder AA, Wosu AC, Gibson DG, Labrique AB, Ali J, Pariyo GW. Noncommunicable disease risk factors and mobile phones: a proposed research agenda. J Med Internet Res. 2017;9(5): e7246.
Mahfoud Z, Ghandour L, Ghandour B, Mokdad AH, Sibai AM. Cell phone and face-to-face interview responses in population-based surveys. Field Methods. 2014;27:39–54.
Hu SS, Balluz L, Battaglia MP, Frankel MR. The impact of cell phones on public health surveillance. Bull World Health Organ. 2010;88:799.
Labrique A, Blynn E, Ahmed S, Gibson D, Pariyo G, Hyder AA. Health surveys using mobile phones in developing countries: automated active strata monitoring and other statistical considerations for improving precision and reducing biases. J Med Internet Res. 2017;19: e121.
World Bank. World Development Report 2016: Digital Divides. Washington, DC: World Bank; 2016.
MEASURE Evaluation, The Demographic and Health Surveys, The President’s Malaria Initiative, Roll Back Malaria Partnership, United Nations Children’s Fund, World Health Organization. Household Survey Indicators for Malaria Control. 2018.
The American Association for Public Opinion Research. Standard definitions: final dispositions of case codes and outcome rates for surveys. 2016.
Bertozzi-Villa A, Bever CA, Koenker H, Weiss DJ, Vargas-Ruiz C, Nandi AK, et al. Maps and metrics of insecticide-treated net access, use, and nets-per-capita in Africa from 2000–2020. Nature Commun. 2021;12:3589.
Koenker H, Arnold F, Ba F, Cisse M, Diouf L, Eckert E, et al. Assessing whether universal coverage with insecticide-treated nets has been achieved: is the right indicator being used? Malar J. 2018;17:355.
L’Engle K, Sefa E, Adimazoya EA, Yartey E, Lenzi R, Tarpo C, et al. Survey research with a random digit dial national mobile phone sample in Ghana: methods and sample quality. PLoS ONE. 2018;13: e0190902.
Leo B, Morello R, Mellon J, Pieixoto T, Davenport S. Do mobile phone surveys work in poor countries? Washington DC: Center for Global Development; 2015.
Tran MC, Labrique AB, Mehra S, Ali H, Shaikh S, Mitra M, et al. Analyzing the mobile “digital divide”: changing determinants of household phone ownership over time in rural Bangladesh. JMIR Mhealth Uhealth. 2015;3:e24.
Pew Research Center. Internet connectivity seen as having positive impact on life in sub-Saharan Africa. 2018.
Rheault M, McCarthy J. Disparities in cellphone ownership pose challenges in Africa: Gallop World Poll; 2015. https://news.gallup.com/poll/189269/disparities-cellphone-ownership-pose-challenges-africa.aspx. Accessed Dec 7 2021.
Lau CQ, Lombaard A, Baker M, Eyerman J, Thalji L. How representative are SMS surveys in Africa? Experimental evidence from four countries. Int J Public Opin Res. 2019;31:309–30.
World Medical Association. Ethics Unit. Declaration of Helsinki 2007 https://www.wma.net/policies-post/wma-declaration-of-helsinki-ethical-principles-for-medical-research-involving-human-subjects/. Accessed Apr 6 2022.